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Medical Physiology

Principles for Clinical Medicine
9781975160432
ISBN/ISSN
9781975160432
Publication Date
March 7, 2022
2022-03-7
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  • Description
    Delivering the most up-to-date information available in a rich, engaging presentation, Medical Physiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 6th Edition, instills a complete understanding of physiology essential to effective clinical practice. This robust text not only details how the human body reacts to internal and external changes but also provides a deep understanding of how physiologic systems coordinate to maintain optimal health, as well as the involvement of altered functions in disease processes.
     
    Extensively updated throughout and fully aligned with today’s medical curriculum, the 6th Edition emphasizes the physiologic principles key to understanding human function, places them in their fundamental context in clinical medicine, and provides opportunities for student self-directed and team-based learning through case studies, clinical application exercises, and board-style review questions.
    • NEW! Physiology of Aging and Organ Function chapter details the impact of aging on the body as it relates to human function.
    • New and revised content throughout familiarizes you with the latest perspectives on cardiovascular physiology, neuromuscular physiology, gastrointestinal physiology, endocrine physiology, exercise physiology, and more.
    • Updated USMLE-style review questions with answers provide valuable self-assessment and board exam prep.
    • Clinical Focus essays clarify how and where physiology relates to clinical medicine and diagnosis. 
    • Integrated Medical Sciences essays alert you to important connections between physiology and other basic sciences.
    • Clinical Applications exercises offer practice applying clinical knowledge and solving problems.
    • Conceptual diagrams strengthen comprehension of difficult concepts and present both normal and abnormal clinical conditions.
    • Active Learning Objectives, Chapter Summaries, and full-color artwork and tables make learning engaging and efficient.
    • Additional online resources provide instant access to animations, additional review questions, additional clinical application exercises, advanced clinical problem-solving exercises, and suggested readings.
  • Specs
    Edition
    6
    ISBN/ISSN
    9781975160432
    Product Format
    PB-Paperback
    Trim Size
    8 3/8 x 10 7/8
    Pages
    960
    Edition
    6
    Publication Date
    March 7, 2022
  • Rodney A. Rhoades PhD
    David R. Bell PhD
  • Table of contents
    Preface v
    Contributors ix
    Reviewers x
    PART I CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY 1
    CHAPTER 1 Medical Physiology: An Overview 1
    Scope of Physiology 1
    Recent Directions for Medical Physiology 2
    CHAPTER 2 Membrane Transport and Cell Signaling 9
    Basis of Physiologic Regulation 9
    Cytosol and the Plasma Membrane 11
    Solute Transport Mechanisms 14
    Water Movement Across the Plasma Membrane 22
    Communication and Signaling Modes 25
    Molecular Basis of Cellular Signaling 26
    PART II NEUROMUSCULAR PHYSIOLOGY 37
    CHAPTER 3 Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Nerve Function 37
    The Nervous System 37
    Resting Membrane Potential 40
    Action Potentials 43
    Synaptic Transmission 47
    Neurotransmission 50
    CHAPTER 4 Sensory Physiology 59
    Sensory Systems 59
    Somatosensory System 64
    Visual System 67
    Auditory System 74
    Vestibular System 82
    Gustatory and Olfactory Systems 84
    CHAPTER 5 Motor System 93
    Skeleton as Framework for Movement 93
    Muscle Function and Body Movement 93
    Nervous System Components for the Control of Movement 94
    Spinal Cord in the Control of Movement 98
    Supraspinal Influences on Motor Control 102
    Cerebral Cortex Role in Motor Control 104
    Basal Ganglia and Motor Control 109
    Cerebellum in the Control of Movement 112
    CHAPTER 6 Autonomic Nervous System 118
    Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System 118
    Neurotransmitters of the Autonomic Nervous System 119
    CONTENTSThe Parasympathetic Nervous System 123
    Sympathetic Nervous System 125
    Autonomic Integration 128
    CHAPTER 7 Integrative Functions of the Central Nervous System 136
    Hypothalamus 136
    Brain Electrical Activity 144
    Functional Components of the Forebrain 147
    Higher Cognitive Skills 153
    CHAPTER 8 Skeletal and Smooth Muscle 160
    Skeletal Muscle 160
    Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle 163
    The Neuromuscular Motor Unit and Mechanics of Skeletal Muscle Contraction 170
    Loading Conditions and Muscle Mechanics 173
    Muscle Plasticity, Epigenetics, and Endocrine Muscle 180
    Smooth Muscle 180
    Activation–Contraction Coupling in Smooth Muscle 185
    PART III BLOOD AND IMMUNOLOGY 196
    CHAPTER 9 Blood Composition and Function 196
    Blood Functions 196
    Whole Blood 197
    Soluble Components of Blood and their Tests 197
    Formed Elements of Blood and Common Diagnostic Tests 200
    Red Blood Cells 204
    White Blood Cells 207
    Platelet Formation 210
    Blood Cell Formation 210
    Blood Clotting 210
    CHAPTER 10 Immunology, Organ Interaction, and Homeostasis 218
    Immune System Components 218
    Immune System Activation 219
    Immune Detection System 221
    Immune System Defenses 221
    Cell-Mediated and Humoral Responses 224
    Acute and Chronic Inflammation 231
    Chronic Inflammation 233
    Anti-inflammatory Drugs 234
    Organ Transplantation and Immunology 235
    Immunologic Disorders 237
    Neuroendoimmunology 239
    PART IV CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY 245
    CHAPTER 11 Overview of the Cardiovascular System and Hemodynamics 245
    Functional Organization of the Cardiovascular System 246
    Hemodynamics: The Physics of Blood Containment and Movement 247
    Rheology 256
    Distribution of Pressure, Flow, Velocity, and Blood Volume 256CHAPTER 12 Electrical Activity of the Heart 262
    Electrophysiology of Cardiac Muscle 263
    The Pathophysiology of Abnormal Generation of Cardiac Action Potentials 269
    The Electrocardiogram 270
    CHAPTER 13 Mechanics of the Cardiac Pump 288
    Excitation–Contraction Coupling in Cardiac Muscle 289
    The Cardiac Cycle 292
    Determinants of Myocardial Performance 294
    Determinants of Myocardial Oxygen Demand and Clinical Evaluation of Cardiac Performance 300
    Cardiac Output 303
    Imaging Techniques for Measuring Cardiac Structures, Volumes, Blood Flow, and Cardiac Output 306
    CHAPTER 14 Interactions between the Heart and the Systemic Circulation 313
    Components of Arterial Pressure 313
    Clinical Measurement of Arterial Pressure 316
    The Concept of Peripheral and Central Blood Volume 318
    Interconnections between Vascular and Cardiac Function 320
    CHAPTER 15 Regulation of Organ Blood Flow and Capillary Transport 328
    Local Regulation of Organ Blood Flow 328
    The Microcirculation and Capillary Dynamics 335
    Solute Exchange between the Cardiovascular System and Tissues 337
    Capillary Water Transport 339
    The Lymphatic System 342
    CHAPTER 16 Special Vascular Physiology of Individual Organs 349
    The Coronary Circulation 349
    The Cerebral Circulation 351
    The Circulation of the Small Intestine 354
    The Hepatic Circulation 356
    Skeletal Muscle Circulation 357
    The Cutaneous Circulation 359
    Fetal and Placental Circulations 360
    CHAPTER 17 Neurohumoral Control Mechanisms in Cardiovascular
    Function 369
    Autonomic Neural Control of the Cardiovascular System 369
    Hormonal Control of the Cardiovascular System 377
    Circulatory Shock 381
    PART V RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY 389
    CHAPTER 18 Ventilation and the Mechanics of Breathing 389
    Lung Structural and Functional Relationships 390
    Pulmonary Pressures and Airflow during Breathing 391
    Spirometry and Lung Volumes 396
    Minute Ventilation versus Alveolar Ventilation 399
    Elastic Properties of Lung and Chest Wall 404
    Airway Resistance and the Work of Breathing 411
    CHAPTER 19 Gas Transfer and Transport 421
    Gas Diffusion and Uptake 421
    Diffusing Capacity 424
    Gas Transport by the Blood 424CHAPTER 20 Pulmonary Circulation and Matching Ventilation/Perfusion 436
    Functional Organization 436
    Pulmonary Hemodynamic 437
    Fluid Exchange in the Pulmonary Capillaries 441
    Blood Flow Distribution in the Lungs 443
    Shunts and Venous Admixture 444
    CHAPTER 21 Control of Breathing 451
    Involuntary and Voluntary Control of Breathing 451
    Pulmonary Neural Reflexes Modify Breathing 454
    Physiologic Responses to Altered Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 456
    Ventilatory Responses to Altered Environments 457
    Control of Breathing During Sleep 459
    Control of Breathing in Unusual Environments 461
    PART VI RENAL PHYSIOLOGY AND BODY FLUIDS 470
    CHAPTER 22 Kidney Function 470
    Overview of Renal Function 470
    The Nephron: The Functional Unit of the Kidney 471
    Renal Blood Flow 474
    Glomerular Filtration 476
    Renal Clearance and Kidney Function 480
    Basic Principles of Renal Tubular Transport 484
    Tubule Secretion 490
    Urinary Concentration Mechanisms and Water Conservation by the Kidney 493
    Micturition 498
    CHAPTER 23 Regulation of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 505
    Fluid Compartments of the Body 505
    Water Balance 511
    Fluid–Electrolyte Disturbances and Renal Function 514
    Sodium Balance 515
    Potassium Balance 522
    Renal Handling of Calcium 525
    Renal Handling of Magnesium 526
    Renal Handling of Phosphate 526
    CHAPTER 24 Acid–Base Homeostasis 533
    Basic Principles of Acid–Base Chemistry 533
    Metabolic Production of Acids in the Body 535
    The Body’s Integrated Buffering Systems 536
    Regulation of Intracellular pH 544
    Physiologic Disturbances of Acid–Base Balance 545
    PART VII GASTROINTESTINAL PHYSIOLOGY 556
    CHAPTER 25 Gastrointestinal Motility 556
    Organization of the Digestive System 557
    Gastrointestinal Motility 559
    Swallowing and Esophageal Motility 561
    Esophageal Motility 562
    Gastric Motility 563Large Intestinal Motility 567
    Intestinal Smooth Muscle 570
    Gut Motility and Digestive Function 571
    Enteric Motor Neurons 574
    CHAPTER 26 Gastrointestinal Secretory Functions 584
    Gastrointestinal Secretion 584
    Salivary Secretion 584
    Gastric Secretion 587
    Pancreatic Secretion 593
    Biliary Secretion 597
    Intestinal Secretion 599
    CHAPTER 27 Gastrointestinal Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients 605
    The Gastrointestinal System 605
    Gastric Digestion and Absorption 606
    The Small Intestine 607
    Digestion and Absorption: Carbohydrates 608
    Digestion and Absorption: Lipids 609
    Digestion and Absorption: Proteins 613
    Absorption: Vitamins 615
    Absorption: Electrolytes and Minerals 617
    Absorption: Water 620
    Liver Function 621
    Liver: Carbohydrate Metabolism 624
    Liver: Lipid Metabolism 626
    Liver: Protein Metabolism 628
    Liver: Nutrient Storage 629
    Liver: Drug Metabolism 631
    Liver: Endocrine Function 633
    Liver: Immune Function 633
    PART VIII TEMPERATURE REGULATION AND EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY 639
    CHAPTER 28 Regulation of Body Temperature 639
    Body Temperature and Heat Transfer 639
    Thermoregulation: Heat Production and Heat Loss 642
    Metabolic Rate and Heat Production at Rest 643
    Heat Dissipation 646
    Thermoregulatory Control 650
    Thermoregulatory Responses During Exercise 653
    Heat Acclimatization 655
    Physiological Responses to Cold 657
    Clinical Aspects of Thermoregulation 658
    CHAPTER 29 Exercise Physiology 666
    Oxygen Uptake and Exercise 666
    Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise 667
    Respiratory Responses to Exercise 671
    Exercise-Induced Changes in Skeletal Muscle Dynamics and Bone Metabolism 673
    Obesity, Aging, and Immune Responses to Exercis 677PART IX ENDOCRINE PHYSIOLOGY 683
    CHAPTER 30 Endocrine Control Mechanisms 683
    General Endocrine Concepts 683
    Chemical Nature of Hormones 686
    Measurement of Circulating Hormones 689
    Mechanisms of Hormone Action 691
    CHAPTER 31 Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland 696
    Structure of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis 696
    Posterior Pituitary Hormones 698
    Anterior Pituitary Hormones 699
    Hypothalamic–Pituitary Regulation of Growth 704
    CHAPTER 32 Thyroid Gland 713
    Thyroid Hormone Synthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism 713
    Thyroid Hormone Effects on the Body 718
    Abnormalities of Thyroid Function in Adults 720
    CHAPTER 33 Adrenal Gland 727
    Adrenal Steroid Hormone Synthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism 727
    Glucocorticoid Effects on the Body 734
    Adrenal Catecholamines 737
    CHAPTER 34 Endocrine Pancreas 742
    Islets of Langerhans 742
    Mechanisms of Islet Hormone Synthesis and Secretion 743
    Insulin and Glucagon Action 748
    Diabetes Mellitus 751
    CHAPTER 35 Endocrine Regulations of Calcium, Phosphate, and Bone
    Homeostasis 759
    Overview of Calcium and Phosphate in the Body 759
    Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism 761
    Plasma Calcium and Phosphate Regulation 763
    Bone Dysfunction 766
    PART X REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY 773
    CHAPTER 36 Male Reproductive System 773
    The Endocrine Glands of the Male Reproductive System 773
    Testicular Function and Regulation 773
    Spermatogenesis 779
    Endocrine Function of the Testis 781
    Androgen Action and Male Development 783
    Male Reproductive Disorders 786
    CHAPTER 37 Female Reproductive System 791
    Female Reproductive Organs 791
    Puberty 792
    Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive System 794
    Ovarian Steroid Synthesis 796
    Ovarian Cycle 798
    Menstrual Cycle 801
    Female Reproductive System Disorders 805CHAPTER 38 Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Fetal Development 810
    Fertilization, Implantation, and Placenta Development 810
    Maternal Adaptation during and Following Pregnancy 816
    Fetal Development and Growth 820
    Contraception 824
    PART XI AGING 829
    CHAPTER 39 Physiology of Aging and Organ Function 829
    Aging Defined 829
    Science of Aging 830
    Physiological Changes and Aging 833
    Aging and Respiratory Changes 834
    Aging and Musculoskeletal Changes 835
    Aging and Gastrointestinal Changes 836
    Aging and the Endocrine System 837
    Aging and the Sensory System 838
    Aging and the Urinary System 839
    Appendix A: Common Abbreviations in Physiology 845
    Appendix B: Normal Blood, Plasma, or Serum Values 848
    Glossary 851
    Index 911
    Chapter Review Questions and Answers, Case Studies, Animations, Suggested Readings, and More
    www.thePoint.com/Rhoades4e
  • Features
    • NEW! Physiology of Aging and Organ Function chapter details the impact of aging on the body as it relates to human function.
    • New and revised content throughout familiarizes you with the latest perspectives on cardiovascular physiology, neuromuscular physiology, gastrointestinal physiology, endocrine physiology, exercise physiology, and more.
    • Updated USMLE-style review questions with answers provide valuable self-assessment and board exam prep.
    • Clinical Focus essays clarify how and where physiology relates to clinical medicine and diagnosis. 
    • Integrated Medical Sciences essays alert you to important connections between physiology and other basic sciences.
    • Clinical Applications exercises offer practice applying clinical knowledge and solving problems.
    • Conceptual diagrams strengthen comprehension of difficult concepts and present both normal and abnormal clinical conditions.
    • Active Learning Objectives, Chapter Summaries, and full-color artwork and tables make learning engaging and efficient.
    • Additional online resources provide instant access to animations, additional review questions, additional clinical application exercises, advanced clinical problem-solving exercises, and suggested readings.
  • Review
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